Taiwanese Idioms 臺灣俚諺 懶鳥比雞腿、捧人LP




「痧疥懶看做釘珠小刀柄」: 眼花看錯



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Advanced classical Taiwanese swears 100年前台灣人都罵什麼髒話?絕對不只「X你娘」,一口氣譙完




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Input Methods (IME) in Linux: Fcitx

IBus is considered as retiring, but it’s still the default in MX Linux. Because the only Cantonese IME in Linux that allows me to swear is Andrew Choi’s CAP, which runs on fcitx, I settled for fcitx as my default IME engine.


  • Cantonese: Download the debian package for CAP
  • Japanese: Mozc is already installed
  • Simplified Chinese: Pinyin is already installed

Shortcuts (Very much like Windows):

  • Ctrl + Space: turn it on/off
  • Ctrl + Shift: switch between languages
  • Shift: in and out of temporary English mode (inactivate) within the language

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Cantonese IME for Windows 10

There are not many decent Cantonese IME around. The best option for Windows 7 and before are CPIME. It borderline worked for Windows 8/10 (desktop mode only), but I heard recently Windows 10 broke it in its 1903 update.

Dr. Choi kindly wrote another Cantonese IME called CAP, which I came across while looking for Cantonese IME for Linux. This is the only option that works with Windows 10 natively (apps and desktop).

Unfortunately the installer failed on a fresh Windows 10, saying that “CAP.dll” cannot be registered. I looked at the error code and it usually suggest a missing dependency for the DLL. I used Dependency Walker to look at what’s broken and noticed those are Visual C++ 2015 DEBUG runtime DLLs. Since debug builds aren’t suppose to have a redistributable runtime (it’s actually called NonRedist), the only solution is to install the community edition of Visual C++ 2015 to obtain these DLLs.

Note that “Common Tools for Visual C++ 2015must be included (installed) so the IME won’t be broken (grayed):

The cause is the missing UCRTBASED.DLL. The files are located at:

C:\Program Files (x86)\Windows Kits\10\bin

It’s under the (x86) variant of Program Files regardless of whether it’s 32-bit or 64-bit.

The missing link to API-MS-WIN-CORE-PATH-L1-1-0.DLL is not important.

After you installed the IME after installing Visual C++ 2015 (any flavor, minimal is OK), you can remove Visual C++ 2015 without breaking the IME, EXCEPT you need to back up the UCRTBASED.DLL first and put it next to the core CAP.DLL file for the IME:

C:\Program Files\Sixth Happiness\CAP\x64



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屄/閪 膣 (誤讀 雞)
屌/𨳒 姦 (誤讀 幹) 肏 (誤讀 操)
𡳞/卵鳥 (誤讀 懶鳥) チンポ (珍宝)
春袋 蛋蛋 卵脬 きんたま(金玉)
儸柚 屁股 尻(kha)川(tshng) おしり (お尻)



真趣味的台灣俗諺(尻川): http://www.tma.tw/ltk/107611213.pdf

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Obscure differences between Kanji and Chinese characters

People who already know Chinese characters are often said to have the advantage of being able to pick up Japanese quickly. However, to learn it properly, in addition to the  difference between infix (English, Chinese) and reverse polish (Japanese) notations, it also comes with quite a bit of baggage. It’s the differences that requires work to observe, such as:

  • some made up ‘Chinese’ characters (和製漢語),
  • some are written slightly differently, including artistic variations
  • some has a completely different meaning,
  • some has opposite preferences for using which character in the pair when simplifying
  • and some has drastically different overtones despite they technically mean the same thing
  • the mixture of simplified and traditional characters, occasionally a character written like simplified Chinese means something totally different from traditional Chinese, such as 机(つくえ)which means desk vs 機(キ)which means machines or chances depending on the context.
  • the roles of historical and modern writings are randomly reversed

学習 is a good example. Modern Chinese considers 学 to be more colloquial (e.g. 学武功)and 習 to be more formal (e.g. 習武). Japanese is the other way round for 学ぶ and 習う。学ぶ has a more serious tone.

Actually, the kinds of variations mentioned above applies to regional differences in Chinese languages (such as Taiwanese, Cantonese and Mandarin). Most places agree to write Chinese in a way that can be read directly using Mandarin so that we can at least communicate on paper. So as time goes by, we lost the ability to write in Taiwanese and Cantonese. I hope it’ll change as both dialects are very colorful. Re-expressing them in Mandarin will take away all the flavors in them.

It’s evident that humans can pick up more than one language, so there is no reason to compromise dialects in the process of standardization. People advocating to kill other languages are simpletons who believe in the kind of logic supporting a competitive system: you find ways to make your peers do worse to stay ahead, instead of improving yourself.

Different regions occasionally have different preferences for character order in phrases. Basically we have to watch out for all kinds of combinations. Like 介紹 is used in the same order for Taiwanese/Cantonese/Mandarin to mean introduction, but it’s reversed 紹介(しょうかい) in Japanese. To make it a total mindfuck, Mandarin sticks with 客人 for guests, which is used the same way as Japanese’s 客人(きゃくにん), Taiwanese mostly says 人客, while Cantonese uses both with slight overtones: 客人 is usually used as a particular noun (e.g. 呢位客人) while 人客 is often used as a collective noun (e.g. 人客嚟齊未?), most likely because 客人 sounds more formal than 人客.

Putting traditional and simplified Chinese aside, different regions have different preferences for Chinese characters. I couldn’t tell the difference between traditional Chinese characters used in Hongkong/Macau (港澳繁體) and Taiwan (台灣正體) on Wikipedia, and later learned that it was because I’ve been randomly mixing both all along and nobody ever pointed it out.

裏/着 (Hongkong) vs 裡/著 (Taiwan) are good examples. For these two, modern Japanese sided with Hongkong in the character choices for 裏(うら) and 着(ちゃく). On the other hand, 峰(みね) in Japanese sided with the Taiwanese’s preferred writing 峰, while the 峯 is the ‘officially’ preferred writing in Hongkong.

I remember writing 峰 most of the time even when I was a kid and only used 峯 for names that specifically calls for it. We respect the original writing for names. This is the similar situation as in Japanese: 沢(さわ/たく) is used in most cases and reserve 澤(サワ) for names that specifically requests to be written in this form. The only difference is that I used the official character 峯 exclusively for names, while using the off-label 峰 for the rest.

Speaking of names, there are some similar-looking characters that has the same Japanese sound (かな) but are actually different in both writing and meaning. 斉藤 and 斎藤 are different, but they are easily confused for native Japanese speakers who don’t have any Chinese language background. Here’s the table for comparison:

齊/齐・斉 齋/齋・
Meaning Gathered, organized Plain, house, recitations
Cantonese chai (cai4) jaai (zaai1)
Taiwanese tsè tsai
Mandarin qi2 zhai1
Japanese (音読み:さい) 斉しい・等しく いつき・(潔斎)物忌み

The bottom line is: as language evolves, different regions have different preferences about what can they be sloppy about and what they must be meticulous about. They also reorder/tweak things to make them flow smoothly with their dialect. This means traps for for those learning a new language that are close to what they’ve already mastered.

I came across a document called 常用漢字表 released by the Agency for Cultural Affairs (文化庁) that explains all the quirks of Kanji that was carefully collecting on my own while taking the classes. Wish I had it back in the days. Here’s the link, but I also saved a local copy of 常用漢字表 just in case if their website moves around in the future.

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Introduction to funny colloquial HK Cantonese phrases: 搵食啫,犯法呀 That's how we justify outrageous things we do that's still technically legal

This summarizes the cultural mentality in HK:

  • as far as profit is concerned, anything goes as long as it’s legal
  • schadenfreude

The third quote in the video was actually taken out of context and therefore incorrectly translated. In the show, the word 精神 refers to (body) energy, not spirits (ideals). Dayo meant to say that HKers worked so hard in a prospering economy that people were constantly tired and lacked the attention span to appreciate art and culture. Just ignore it.

Nonetheless, I believe Mr. Siu made the mistake because we all subconsciously agree that the core values of Hongkongers is the lack of thereof, which the stand up comedian Dayo Wong also mentioned in his (supposedly) final standup comedy show. In fact, I’m proud of it: it simply means even the average HK people aren’t too stupid (see Dilbert and Rick and Morty and ye shall comprehend: values are for stupid people who cannot reason through the purpose of their actions)

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