Flashing router firmware through Serial Port: CFE bootloader (usually Broadcom) based routers

Here’s a summary of learnings from dd-wrt’s serial recovery instructions:

  1. Use a UART controller that signals at 3.3V (e.g. FTDI TTL-232R-3V3) to talk to the board. Regular serial RS-232 ports requires a voltage level shifter converting the signal to swing between 0V to 3.3V.
  2. You only need 3 pins: Tx, Rx and Ground. There’s voltage contention if you plug in the Vcc from TTL-232R-3V3 (It’s the USB’s 5V despite the signaling is 3.3V) to the 3.3V supply of the router. You don’t need the Vcc pin. It didn’t harm anything or do anything when I connected the Vcc pin.
  3. Stick with all serial port defaults and only set the baud to 115200 (default is 9600) and turn off flow control (default is xon/xoff). I use Putty for terminal.
  4. The terminal serves as the monitor for the computer on the router that shows a text console. Broadcom uses CFE bootloader (others use U-Boot with busybox).
  5. CFE bootloader defaults to with subnet mask (aka /24). Set up the network interface to have a static IP on the same subnet to talk to the board.
  6. Good habit: nvram erase
  7. The flash program relies on TFTP protocol to receive the firmware file. So get your TFTP client ready. Microsoft included a TFTP client/server since Windows 7 but usually disabled (turn it on in Windows OptionalFeatures.exe).
  8. TFTP is a simple push(put)/pull(get) design. You can either “push a file on your computer” or “get a file as filename”. You’d want to specify -i switch (binary image transfer) with Windows tftp.exe.
  9. So type this command at the command prompt but don not press enter until your router is ready to grab the file: tftp -i put {path to whatever TRX firmware file}
  10. Go back to the serial terminal and tell the router to accept a TFTP push (in a window of a few seconds before it time out) and flash the memory region flash1.trx with this command: flash -ctheader : flash1.trx
  11. Immediately initiate the TFTP push from your computer (Windows command line example in Step #9 above)
  12. Wait for a couple of hours! The terminal might tell you that it has received the file completely, but it won’t show anything when it’s writing to the flash! It’s a painfully slow process with no feedback. Just be patient!

Some observations

  • FreshTomato firmware absolutely won’t tell you on the screen after it has done flashing (Merlin-WRT does). Just turn the router back on after a couple of hours.
  • Merlin firmware repeats (exposes) the raw passwords to the serial port!
  • FreshTomato firmware boots to a linux prompt on the serial port

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