# C Traps and Pitfalls

Here’s a concise paper describing common C programming pitfalls by Andrew Koening (www.literateprogramming.com/ctraps.pdf) corresponding to be book with the same title.

As a reminder to myself, I’ll spend this page summarizing common mistakes and my history with it.

Here are the mistakes that I don’t make because of certain programming habits:

• Operator precedence: I use enough parenthesis to not rely on operator precedence
• Pointer dereferencing: I always do *(p++) instead of *p++ unless it’s idiomatic.
• for() or if() statements executing only first line: I always surround the block with {} even if it’s just one line. Too often we need to inject an extra line and without {} it becomes a trap.
• Undefined side effect order: I never do something like y[i++]=x[i]
• char* p, q: very tempting since C++ style emphasize on pointer as a type over whether the variable is a pointer. I almost never declare multiple variables in one line.
• Macro repeating side effects: use inline functions instead whenever possible. Use templates in C++.
• Unexpected macro associations: guard expressions with (). Use typedef.

Did these once before, adjusted my programming habits to avoid it:

• counting down in for() loop with unsigned running variable: I stick with signed running variables in general. If I’m forced to use unsigned, I’ll remind myself that I can only stop AFTER hitting 1, but not 0 (i.e. i=0 never got executed).

Haven’t got a chance to run into these, but I’ll program defensively:

• Integer overflow: do a<b instead of (a-b)<0. Calculate mean by adding halfway length to the smaller number (i.e. (a+b)/2 == a + (b-a)/2 given a<b). Shows up in binary search.
• Number of bits to shift is always unsigned (i.e. -1 is a big number!)

What I learned from the paper:

• stdio buffer on stack (registered with setbuf()) freed before I/O flushed: use static buffer (or just make sure the buffer lives outside the function call).
• char type might be signed (128 to 255 are -128 to -1) so it sign extends during upcast. Use unsigned char go guarantee zero extend for upcasting.
• toupper()/tolower() might be implemented as a simple macro (no checks, incorrect /w side effects)
• Can index into a string literal: "abcdefg"[3] gives 'd'

Mistakes that I usually make when I switch back from full-time MATLAB programming:

• Logical negation using ~ operator instead of ! operator.

Common mistakes I rarely make because of certain understanding:

• Forgetting to break at every case in switch block. It’s hard to forget once you’re aware of the Duff’s device.
• sizeof(a[])/sizeof(a[0]) after passing into a function does not give array length: hard to get it wrong once you understand that array (declared on stack) has meta-info that cannot be accessed beyond the stack level it’s initialized.

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