In structured programming (like C and C++), the building abstractions is program (functions) and data (variables).
Under the hood, especially in von-Neumann architecture’s perspective, functions and variables are both just data (a stream of numbers) that can be moved and manipulated the same way just like data. It’s all up to how the program designer and the hardware choose to give meaning to the bit stream.
In C, we can only scope our variables 3 ways: global, static (stays within same file/translation unit) and local. Sharing variables across functions in different translation units can only be done through
- globals (pollutes namespace and it’s difficult to keep track of who is doing what to the variables and the state at any time)
- passing (the more solid way that gives tighter control and clearer data flow, but managing how to pass many variables in many places is messy, even with struct syntax)
Bundling program with data gives a new way to tightly control the scope of variables: you can specify a group functions allowed to share the same set of variables in the bundle WITHOUT PASSING arguments.
The toolchain modified to recognize the user-defined scope boundaries which bundles program and data into packages, thus reducing root namespace pollution. The is implemented as
namespace keyword in C++
Organizing with namespaces is basically justifying the mentality of using globals (in place of passing variables around intended functions) except it’s in a more controlled manner to keep the damages at bay. The same nasty things with gloabls can still appear if we didn’t design the namespace boundaries tightly so certain functions have access to variables that’s not intended for it.
Therefore, namespaces works nearly identical to a super-simple purely static class (see below) except you lose inheritance and access modifiers in classes in exchange for allowing anonymous namespaces.
Basically namespaces + structs + inheritance + encapsulation (access modifiers) = classes
Classes extends the idea of namespaces by allowing objects (each assigned their own storage space for the variables following the same variable layout) to be instantiated, so they behave like POD (Plain Old Data) in C. We should observe that when overloading operators
-  allow
(a=b)=cchaining by returning *this for
-  disallow
In the most primitive form (no dynamic binding and types, aka virtuals and RTTI), function (method) info is not stored within instantiated objects as the compiler will sort out what classes/namespace they belong to. So it screams struct in C!
C struct is what makes (instantiates) objects from classes!
Note that C structs do not allow ‘static fields’ because static members is solely a construct of namespaces idea in C++! C++ has chosen to expand structs to be synonymous to classes that defaults to private access (if not specified) so code written as C structs behaves as expected in C++.
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